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Measurement of Safety
*Dr.P.Shanmukha Rao **Dr.N.V.S.Suryanarayana
Various rates and ratios can be computed to indicate the progress the safety department is making in its job to employees and management. These rates can be computed periodically, say, on a quarterly basis, both for the company as a whole and for each line department. Two important measures of safety widely recognized and used in business are as follows:
(a) Frequency rates: This is expressed as the number of lost-time accidents per million man-hours worked. The formula to calculate this rate is:
Number of lost-time accidents
---------------------------------------- * 1,000,000
Number of man- hours worked
A lost-time accident is one which makes an employee unable to work on one or more days following the accident.
(b) Severity rate: This is expressed as the number of days lost due to accidents per million man-hours worked. The formula for this is:Number of days lost due to accidents
---------------------------------------- -------- * 1,000,000
Number of man- hours worked
New Techniques in Accident prevention
Three new techniques of accident prevention which have recently developed in industrially advance countries of the West are:
I. Damage control.
II. Human engineering or ergonomics.
III. Systems safety.Damage control:
Heinrich in his book Industrial Accidents Prevention postulates that before a given set of circumstances can lead to a lost-time accident, there would be 29 accidents involving minor injuries and 300 near-accidents involving no injury caused by the same set of circumstances. However, this theory does not go so far as to accurately predict when the lost-time injury would occur. Lukens Steels of the United States have conducted systematic research to evolve a method that would predict accurately when the lost-time injury would occur. Their study concludes that every accident is preceded by a series of minor injuries and incidents which can be said to occur in the following six steps:
At stage one; the situation has an accident potential only. There may be something unsafe in the working environment or wrong attitude to safety in a certain department. Unsafe acts may occur due to inefficient supervision.
At sage two; the accident potential is realized and dangerous incidents do in fact occur. But as it is near miss, there is no injury and no damage to plant or equipment.
At stage three; the near-miss becomes a hit and plant and equipment are damaged. But people are not involved. Therefore, no injury is recorded.
At stage four; people are involved. The accident causes minor injuries to people as well as possible damage to plant and equipment.
At stage five; the injuries caused by an accident are serious enough to keep the worker away for more than three days.At stage six, the injuries received prove fatal.
Lukens steels experts have, therefore, established that adequate number of sign and indications would be available to those who can keep their eyes and mind watchful and a documentation of these indicators would help exercise a better control over the situations and factors leading to damage. This is damage control. One should note that it is not the same as conventional accident control. It concentrates attention on injury potential at the pre-injury stageHuman engineering or ergonomics:
Ergonomics is the science that deals with the many-sided problems of how to fit a job to man's anatomical, physiological and psychological characteristics to enhance human efficiency and well-being. Thus ergonomics is the application of knowledge of human capabilities and limitations to the design of plant and equipment. An equipment designed on the principles of human engineering is far less likely to be a source of accident than one designed without such considerations.Systems safety:
A system is an orderly arrangement of components which are interrelated and which act and interact to perform some task or function in a particular environment. All the components of a system are complementary to each Anritsu GN Nettest CMA4500-100
other. Accidents occur when any one part of the system fails or malfunctions. Certainly if the entire industrial system was under complete control, no accident would result. The systems approach gives rise to use of advanced quantitative techniques and computers.Health Programme (Protection of workers against health hazards):
The prevention of accidents constitutes only one segment of the function of employee maintenance. Another equal important segment is the employee's general health, both physical and mental. The factors which influence the general health of the worker can be divided into two broad groups, namely:
(i) Those which are associated with his working environment and
(ii) Those which he shares with the rest of the community.
As regard the second, it seems reasonable to hold that the workers should have the facilities for health protection that the state provides for the general population. But as regards the factors in the working environment which tend to produce ill health, the worker has the right to demand special measures for his protection.Every employer should protect his employees against health hazards:By substituting a less toxic substance for the hazardous one.By providing protective clothing, storing, handling and warning services.By providing adequate safety education and warning.
By devoting adequate attention to working conditions such as proper lighting, temperature, ventilation, noise, etc.
Health and Safety measures also boost morale of the employees. This helps in developing team spirit and the sense of belongingness among the employees as they see no hazards to their lives and health.
The nature of study conducted to analyze the safety & health programmers conducted by the management and the satisfactory levels of the employees is exploratory in nature because the research is primarily undertaken to identify the problems and to discover more ideas and insights about the problems faced by the employees.
These provisions impose upon the occupiers or managers certain obligations, to protect workers unwary as well as negligence from accidents and to secure for them in employment conditions conductive to their health & safety.
Interest and concern is shown by employers, employees and their unions, government, and public and international organizations. Both complex technologies and governmental legislation have levied a special burden upon employers to maintain the physical and mental wellbeing, health and safety of their employees.
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